Tuesday, August 3, 2010

I Have a Dream - encyclopedia article about I Have a Dream.

I Have a Dream - encyclopedia article about I Have a Dream.
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I Have a Dream

Martin Luther King, Jr. delivering his speech at the DC Civil Rights March."I Have A Dream" is the popular name given to the historic public speech by Martin Luther King, Jr., when he spoke of his desire for a future where blacks and whites among others would coexist harmoniously as equals. King's delivery of the speech on August 28, 1963, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement. Delivered to over two hundred thousand civil rights supporters, the speech is often considered to be one of the greatest and most notable speeches in history and was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century by a 1999 poll of scholars of public address.[1] According to U.S. Congressman John Lewis, who also spoke that day as the President of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, "Dr. King had the power, the ability and the capacity to transform those steps on the Lincoln Memorial into a modern day pulpit. By speaking the way he did, he educated, he inspired, he informed not just the people there, but people throughout America and unborn generations."[2]

At the end of the speech, King departed from his prepared text for a partly improvised peroration on the theme of "I have a dream", possibly prompted by Mahalia Jackson's cry "Tell them about the dream, Martin!".[3] He had delivered a speech incorporating some of the same sections in Detroit in June 1963, when he marched on Woodward Avenue with Walter Reuther and the Rev. C.L. Franklin, and had rehearsed other parts.[4]

StyleWidely hailed as a masterpiece of rhetoric, King's speech resembles the style of a Black Baptist sermon. It appeals to such iconic and widely respected sources as the Bible and invokes the United States Declaration of Independence, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the United States Constitution. Through the rhetorical device of allusion, King makes use of phrases and language from important cultural texts for his own rhetorical purposes. Early in his speech King alludes to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address by saying "Five score years ago...." Biblical allusions are also prevalent. For example, King alludes to Psalm 30:5[5] in the second stanza of the speech. He says in reference to the abolition of slavery articulated in the Emancipation Proclamation, "It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity." Another Biblical allusion is found in King's tenth stanza: "No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream." This is an allusion to Amos 5:24.[6] King also quotes from Isaiah 40:4 — "I have a dream that every valley shall be exalted.."

Anaphora, the repetition of a phrase at the beginning of sentences, is a rhetorical tool employed throughout the speech. An example of anaphora is found early as King urges his audience to seize the moment: "Now is the time..." is repeated four times in the sixth paragraph. The most widely cited example of anaphora is found in the often quoted phrase "I have a dream..." which is repeated eight times as King paints a picture of an integrated and unified America for his audience. Other occasions when King used anaphora include "One hundred years later," "We can never be satisfied," "With this faith," and "Let freedom ring."

Key excerpts"In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked 'insufficient funds.'"
"It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual."
"The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people. For many of our white brothers as evidenced by their presence here today have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We can not walk alone."
"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.'"
"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character."
"I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood."
"This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day."
"Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children."
"Let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom ring—when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

LegacyThe March on Washington put much more pressure on the Kennedy administration to advance civil rights legislation in Congress. The diaries of Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., published posthumously in 2007, suggest that President Kennedy was concerned that if the march failed to attract large numbers of demonstrators, it might undermine his civil rights efforts.

In the wake of the speech and march, King was named Man of the Year by TIME magazine for 1963, and in 1964, he was the youngest person ever awarded the Nobel Peace Prize[7].

In 2002, the Library of Congress honored the speech by adding it to the United States National Recording Registry.

In 2003, the National Park Service dedicated an inscribed marble pedestal to commemorate the location of King's speech at the Lincoln Memorial.[8]

Similarities to other speechesFurther information: Martin Luther King, Jr. authorship issues
Approximately twenty percent, the last two minutes, of King's historic speech bears a strong resemblance to a speech delivered in 1952 at the Republican National Convention by Reverend Archibald Carey, Sr., a personal friend of King's. Many, however, believe that the similarities are so slight that they do not rise to the level of plagiarism.[9]

Copyright disputeBecause King distributed copies of the speech at its performance, there was controversy regarding the speech's copyright status for some time. This led to a lawsuit, Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr., Inc. v. CBS, Inc., which established that the King estate does hold copyright over the speech and had standing to sue; the parties then settled. Unlicensed use of the speech or a part of it can still be lawful in some circumstances and jurisdictions under doctrines such as fair use or fair dealing.

References^ Stephen Lucas and Martin Medhurst (December 15, 1999). "I Have a Dream" Speech Leads Top 100 Speeches of the Century. The University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
^ "A "Dream" Remembered", NewsHour, August 28, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
^ See Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-1963.
^ Interview With Martin Luther King III. CNN (August 22, 2003). Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
^ Psalm 30:5. Today's New International Version of the Bible. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
^ Amos 5:24. Today's New International Version of the Bible. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
^ Martin Luther King. The Nobel Foundation (1964). Retrieved on 2007-04-20.
^ We Shall Overcome, Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement: Lincoln Memorial. U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-01-15.
^ Martin Luther King. Snopes. Retrieved on 2007-11-29.

External linksVideo of speech at YouTube
Video of speech on AfricanAmericanHistory.tv
I Have a Dream Text, Audio, Video from AmericanRhetoric.com
Text of speech : United States Department of State
Lyrics of the traditional spiritual "Free At Last"
SouthCoastToday.com: A read on a 4th, 5th and 6th graders' take on Martin
Martin Luther King, Jr.

Works Speeches: How Long, Not Long • I Have a Dream • I've Been to the Mountaintop
Writings: Letter from Birmingham Jail • What is Man?
Protests: 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott • 1960 Nashville sit-ins • 1961 Albany Movement • 1963 Birmingham campaign • 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom • 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches • 1965-67 Chicago Freedom Movement • 1968 Memphis Sanitation Strike • 1968 Poor People's Campaign

People Family: Martin Luther King, Sr. (father) • Alberta Williams King (mother) • Christine King Farris (sister) • Alfred Daniel Williams King (brother) • Coretta Scott King (wife) • Yolanda King (daughter) • Martin Luther King III (son) • Dexter Scott King (son) • Bernice King (daughter) • Alveda King (niece)
Others: Benjamin Mays (mentor) • Bayard Rustin (advisor) • Ralph Abernathy (colleague)

Assassination Assassination • James Earl Ray • William F. Pepper • Loyd Jowers

Related Media Film and television: King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis (documentary film) • King (television miniseries) • Return of the King (episode of The Boondocks)
Songs: Happy Birthday (Stevie Wonder) • Pride (In the Name of Love) (U2) • MLK (U2) Shed a Little Light (James Taylor)

Other Southern Christian Leadership Conference • Martin Luther King, Jr. Day • Lee-Jackson-King Day • National Historic Site • National Memorial • National Civil Rights Museum • Streets • Authorship issues

Historical statements of the United States

Documents Mayflower Compact (1620) · Declaration of Independence (1776) · Federalist Papers (1787-88) · Constitution (1788) · Bill of Rights (1791) · Emancipation Proclamation (1862)

Speeches Washington's Farewell Address (1796) · Lincoln's Gettysburg Address (1863) · Wilson's "Fourteen Points" (1918) · FDR's First Inaugural Address / "Fear Itself" Speech (1933) · FDR's "Four Freedoms" (1941) · FDR's "Infamy" (1941) · Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961) · Kennedy's "Ich bin ein Berliner" (1963) · King's "I Have a Dream" (1963) · First Inaugural address of Ronald Reagan (1981) · Reagan's "Tear Down this Wall!" (1987)

Public speaking

Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners.
..... Click the link for more information. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Date of birth: January 15, 1929(1929-01-15)
Place of birth: Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
..... Click the link for more information. Black people

Black people is a term which is usually used to define a racial group of human beings with dark skin color. Some definitions of the term include only people of relatively recent Sub Saharan African descent (see African diaspora), while
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White People

Studio album by Handsome Boy Modeling School
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Genre Hip-Hop
Length 68:50
Label Elektra Records
..... Click the link for more information. August 28

August 28 is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 125 days remaining until the end of the year.
..... Click the link for more information. 1963

19th century - 20th century - 21st century
1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s
1960 1961 1962 - 1963 - 1964 1965 1966

Year 1963 (
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Lincoln Memorial
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Location: Washington, District of Columbia
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African American topics
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Atlantic slave trade · Maafa
Slavery in the United States
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The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate.
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John Lewis


Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 5th district

Assumed office
January 6, 1987
..... Click the link for more information. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

African American topics
African American history
Atlantic slave trade · Maafa
Slavery in the United States
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Mahalia Jackson

Background information
Birth name Mahala Jackson
Also known as Halie Jackson
Born October 26, 1911(1911-10-26)
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City of Detroit

Nickname: The Motor City, Motown, Hockeytown, Rock City, The D
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Woodward Avenue
Maintained by MDOT

21.48 mi[1] (34.
..... Click the link for more information. Walter Reuther

For the Baseball player Walter Ruether, see Dutch Ruether.

Part of a series on

Organized Labor

..... Click the link for more information. C. L. Franklin

The Reverend Clarence LaVaughn Franklin (January 22, 1915 – July 27, 1984) was a highly influential African American Baptist preacher and civil rights activist. He was also the father of the legendary singer Aretha Franklin.
..... Click the link for more information. Rhetoric

The art of speaking or writing effectively: as a.) the study of principles and rules of composition formulated by critics of ancient times, and b.) the study of writing or speaking as a means of communication or persuasion.
..... Click the link for more information. Sermon

A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic, usually expounding on a type of belief or law within both past and present contexts.
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The Bible is
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(see The Hebrew Bible below)
Part of a series on Christianity
(see The New Testament below)

..... Click the link for more information. United States Declaration of Independence

The United States Declaration of Independence is an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent
..... Click the link for more information. Emancipation Proclamation

The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War.
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United States of America

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An allusion is a figure of speech that makes a reference/representation of/to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art. M.H.
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Abraham Lincoln


16th President of the United States

In office
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin (1861 – 1865)
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The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.
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Period and context

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Religious views: Biblical ·
..... Click the link for more information. Anaphora

In rhetoric, an anaphora (Greek: ἀναφορά, "carrying back") is emphasizing words by repeating them at the beginnings of neighboring clauses.
..... Click the link for more information. Promissory note

A promissory note, also referred to as a note payable in accounting, is a contract detailing the terms of a promise by one party (the maker) to pay a sum of money to the other (the payee).
..... Click the link for more information. Inalienable rights

The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a theoretical set of individual human rights that by their nature cannot be taken away, violated, or transferred from one person to another.
..... Click the link for more information. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness

"Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" is one of the most famous phrases in the United States Declaration of Independence.
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This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the Wikipedia® encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.

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